What is Methampetamine?
A. Methamphetamine is a powerful central
nervous system stimulant. The drug works directly on the brain and spinal cord by interfering with normal neurotransmission. Neurotransmitters are chemical substancesnaturally produced within nerve cells used to communicate with each other and send messages to influenceand regulate our thinking and all other systems throughout the
The main neurotransmitter affected by methamphetamine is dopamine. Dopamine is involved with our naturalreward system. For example, feeling good about a job well done, getting pleasure from our family or socialinteractions, feeling content and that our lives are meaningful and count for something, all rely on dopaminetransmission.1
A synthetic drug, methamphetamine has a high potential for abuse
and dependence. It is illegally produced and sold in pill form, capsules, powder and
chunks. Methamphetamine was developed in the last century from its parent drug
amphetamine and was originally used in nasal decongestants, bronchial inhalers, and in the
treatment of narcolepsy and obesity. In the 1970s methamphetamine became a Schedule II
drug - a drug with little medical use and a high potential for abuse.
Defining Methamphetamine and Crystal Meth: What is it?
|Q: What are the street names for
A. The drug is referred to by many names including
"meth," "speed .. crank," "chalk,"- "go-fast,"
"zip," and "cristy." Pure methamphetamine hydrochloride, the smokeable
form of the drug, is called "L.A." or - because of its clear, chunky crystals
which resemble frozen water - "ice," "crystal," 64glass," or
"quartz." Since the 1980s, ice has been smuggled from Taiwan and South Korea
into Hawaii, where use became widespread by 1988. By 1990, distribution of ice had spread
to the U.S. mainland.
Google Meth News Today...
Q: Where is meth manufactured and
Q: Why is
meth use so prevalent?
A. Methamphetamine is both domestically produced and
imported into the U.S. in already processed form. Once dominated by motorcycle gangs and
other local producers in remote areas of California and the Pacific Northwest, the market
now includes both local producers and Mexican sources providing finished product to
Drug purity dips with distance from U.S.-Mexico border
(August 12, 2010) A new study finds that the purity of cocaine, heroin and methamphetamines sold illegally in the U.S. tends to decline with distance from the Mexican border -- though, for heroin and methamphetamines, it rises once again in the Northeast.
epidemic stems from two problems:
Q: How is meth made?
Use of Marijuana, Ecstasy, Methamphetamine on Rise in U.S.
- steadily increasing importation of
methamphetamine by organized trafficking groups like gangs; and
- clandestine manufacturing of
methamphetamine by hundreds of users/dealers in small "mom and pop"
(Sept. 16, 2010) Illegal drug use in the United States increased from 2008 to 2009, federal drug officials reported Thursday, citing growing acceptance of marijuana and an upswing in ecstasy and methamphetamine use.
A. The processing required to make methamphetamine
from precursor substances is easier and more accessible than ever. There are literally
thousands of recipes and information about making meth on the Internet. An investment of a
few hundred dollars in over-the-counter medications and chemicals can produce thousands of
dollars worth of methamphetamine. The drug can be made in a makeshift "lab" that
can fit into a suit case. The average meth "cook" annually teaches ten other
people how to make the drug.
Q: Where are these labs found?
A. Clandestine labs known as "mom and pop"
labs are found in rural, city and suburban residences; barns, garages and other
outbuildings; back rooms of businesses; apartments; hotel and motel rooms; storage
facilities; vacant buildings; and vehicles.
Q: What ingredients are used to
A. Over-the-counter cold and asthma medications
containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, red phosphorous, hydrochloric acid, drain
cleaner, battery acid, lye, lantern fuel, and antifreeze are among the ingredients most
commonly used. Hazards of Meth Ingredients Manufacturing of Methamphetamine
Q: What are precursor substances?
A. Precursors are substances that, in nature, might
be inactive. However, when combined with another chemical the result is a new product.
Methamphetamine starts with an inactive or marginally-inactive compound (ephedrine or
pseudoephedrine) and other chemicals are added to produce the drug.
Q: How much does meth cost on the
A. The cost varies according to several factors,
including purity of the drug, the region in which it is sold, the source of the drug
(local product vs. imported) and availability of the drug. The approximate prices are:
$25 per 1/4 gram
$ 100 per gram
$1700 per ounce
Experts estimate that one ounce of meth equals about 110
Q: Who is using methamphetamine?
Provided by a reader in New York:
Provided by a reader in the Bay Area of CaliforniA.
| 1/4 gram - $60
1/2 gram - $120
1 gram - $240
gram - $20
1 gram - $80
Provided by a reader
| 1/4 gram -
1/2 gram - $50
1 gram - $100
8-Ball - $300 (3 1/2 grams)
A. There are two basic profiles of users reported by
law enforcement and treatment providers:
Use is widely prevalent in both urban and rural areas and
equally divided among males and females. Women are more likely to use methamphetamine than
cocaine. Some areas are seeing an increase in the number of Hispanic
and Native American meth users, though whites are still the most dominant users of the
drug.On a survey done on this site, of
the 544 respondents:
Q: Are teenagers using the drug?
18 years old
40 years old
Q: Why should I talk to my child about meth?
A. The drug is becoming more popular among persons 18
years and younger, as studies show teenagers perceive methamphetamine as safer, longer
lasting and easier to buy than cocaine. The "Monitoring the Future" survey,
which measures the extent of drug use among U.S. adolescents, found methamphetamine use
among high school seniors more than doubled between 1990 and 1996. In addition, law
enforcement officials have caught teens as young as 14- and 15-year-olds using and selling
A. Teens whose parents talk to them about drugs are
half as likely to use drugs as those whose parents do not speak to them on this topic. See also: Crystal Meth and Methamphetamine effects on Children
Q: Why do people start using
A. Athletes and students sometimes begin using meth
because of the initial heightened physical and mental performance the drug produces. Blue
collar and service workers may use the drug to work extra shifts, while young women often
begin using meth to lose weight. Others use meth recreationally to stay energized at
"rave" parties or other social activities. In addition, meth is less expensive
and more accessible than cocaine and users often have the misconception that
methamphetamine is not really a drug.
Q: Is meth used in combination with
A. Methamphetamine users are likely also to be users
of alcohol, marijuana and cocaine rather than users of drugs like heroin.
Q: Are there any legitimate uses
A. In some cases, doctors prescribe low doses of
methamphetamine for narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder.
Q: How is methamphetamine
A. It can be smoked, taken intranasally (snorted),
injected intravenously or ingested orally. The practice of "eating" meth by
putting it on paper or food and chewing it also has been reported.
What happens immediately after
a person takes methamphetamine?
A. The drug alters mood in different ways, depending
on how it is taken. Immediately after smoking or intravenous injection, the
user experiences an intense "rush" or "flash" that lasts only a few
minutes and is described as extremely pleasurable. Smoking or injecting produces effects
fastest, within five to ten seconds. Snorting or ingesting orally produces euphoria
- a high but not an intense rush. Snorting produces effects within three to five
minutes, and ingesting orally produces effects within 15 to 20 minutes. Stages / Patterns of Methamphetamine Abuse
Q: How does the drug
A. In all forms, the drug stimulates the central
nervous system, with effects lasting anywhere from four to 24 hours. Methamphetamine use
can not only modify behavior in an acute state, but after taking it for a long time, the
drug literally changes the brain in fundamental and long-lasting ways. It kills by causing
heart failure (myocardial infarction), brain damage, and stroke and it induces extreme,
acute psychiatric and psychological symptoms that may lead to suicide or murder.
Q: What are the short-term
A. Central Nervous System
Cardiovascular Side Effects
Even small amounts of methamphetamine can produce euphoria,
increased alertness, paranoia, decreased appetite and increased physical activity. Other
central nervous system effects include athetosis (writhing jerky, or flailing movements),
irritability, extreme nervousness, insomnia, confusion, tremors, anxiety, aggression,
incessant talking, hyperthermia, and convulsions. Hyperthermia (extreme rise in body
temperature as high as 108 degrees) and convulsions sometimes can result in death.
Use can produce chest pain and hypertension which can
result in cardiovascular collapse and death. In addition, methamphetamine causes
accelerated heartbeat, elevated blood pressure and can cause irreversible damage to blood
vessels in the brain.
Pupil dilation, respiratory disorders, dizziness, tooth
grinding, impaired speech, dry or itchy skin, loss of appetite, acne, sores, numbness, and
sweating. Physical Changes
Symptoms of prolonged meth abuse can resemble those of
schizophrenia and are characterized by anger, panic, paranoia, auditory and visual
hallucinations, repetitive behavior patterns, and formication (delusions of parasites or
insects on the skin). Methamphetamine-induced paranoia can result in homicidal
or suicidal thoughts.
Q: What other long-term effects
A. Fatal kidney and lung disorders, brain damage,
liver damage, blood clots, chronic depression, hallucinations, violent and aggressive
behavior, malnutrition, disturbed personality development, deficient immune system, and
methamphetamine psychosis, a mental disorder that may be paranoid psychosis or may mimic
Q: How much of the drug can cause
A. A toxic reaction (or overdose) can occur at
relatively low levels, 50 milligrams of pure drug for a non-tolerant user. Metabolic rates
vary from person to person, and the strength of the illegal form of the drug varies from
batch to batch, so there is no way of stating a "safe" level of use. In
overdose, high fever, convulsions and cardiovascular collapse may precede death. Because
stimulants effect the body's cardiovascular and temperature-regulating systems, physical
exertion increases the hazards of meth use.
What effect does
methamphetamine use have on pregnancy?
A. Babies can be born methamphetamine addicted and
suffer birth defects, low birth weight, tremors, excessive crying, attention deficit
disorder, and behavior disorders. There is also an increased risk of child
abuse (including "shaken baby syndrome") and neglect of children born to parents
who use methamphetamine. Articles and Information about Children and Babies on Methamphetamine
What are some signs that a
person may be using the drug?
A. The person may exhibit anxiousness; nervousness;
incessant talking; extreme moodiness and irritability; purposeless, repetitious behavior,
such as picking at skin or pulling out hair; sleep disturbances; false sense of confidence
and power; aggressive or violent behavior; disinterest in previously enjoyed activities;
and severe depression. Using Signals / Signs of Users on Crystal Meth
Q: If methamphetamine is so
dangerous, why can physicians prescribe the drug to patients?
A. The key is the dosage. Methamphetamine abusers use
much higher dosages of the drug than a physician would routinely prescribe when treating a
Q: Why is methamphetamine
A. All addictive drugs have two things in common:
they produce an initial pleasurable effect, followed by a rebound unpleasant effect.
Methamphetamine, through its stimulant effects, produces a positive feeling, but later
leaves a person feeling depressed. This is because it suppresses the normal production of
dopamine, creating a chemical imbalance. The user physically demands more of the drug to
return to normal. This pleasure/tension cycle leads to loss of control over
the drug and addiction.
Q: How does methamphetamine take
over one's life?
A. Methamphetamine short-circuits a person's survival
system by artificially stimulating the reward center, or pleasure areas in the brain. This
leads to increased confidence in meth and less confidence in the normal rewards of life.
This happens on a physical level at first, then it affects the user psychologically. The
result is decreased interest in other aspects of life while reliance and interest in meth
increases. In one study, laboratory animals pressed levers to release methamphetamine into
their blood stream rather than eat, mate, or satisfy other natural drives. The animals
died of starvation while giving themselves methamphetamine even though food was available.
Is there methamphetamine
A. Yes. The severity and length of symptoms vary with
the amount of damage done to the normal reward system through methamphetamine use. The
most common symptoms are: drug craving, extreme irritability, loss of energy, depression,
fearfulness, excessive drowsiness or difficulty in sleeping, shaking, nausea,
palpitations, sweating, hyperventilation, and increased appetite. See also: Quitting Crystal Meth / Methamphetamine
Q: Is methamphetamine addiction
difficult to treat?
A. Several treatment providers describe
methamphetamine abusers as "the hardest to treat" of all drug users. They are
often overly excitable and "extremely resistant to any form of intervention once the
acute effects of meth use have gone away." Meth addicts get over the acute effects of
withdrawal fairly quickly. However, the "wall" period lasts 6-8
months for casual users and 2-3 years for regular users. (Some people never recover and remain unsatisfied
with life dueto permanent brain damage.) This is
a period of prolonged abstinence during which the brain recovers from the changes
resulting from meth use. During this period, recovering addicts feel depressed,
fuzzyheaded, and think life isn't as pleasurable without the drug. Because prolonged use
causes changes in the brain, willpower alone will not cure meth addicts.
Is relapse common?
A. Yes. Because there are psychiatric, social, and
biological components to meth dependence, there is a high likelihood of relapse. Key
relapse issues are similar to that of cocaine use and include other substance abuse and
being around drug-using friends. Meth Relapse Topics
What prompts methamphetamine
users to enter treatment?
A. Methamphetamine causes a variety of mental,
physical, and social problems which may prompt entry into treatment. Though not as
expensive as heroin and cocaine, its cost might also produce financial problems for users
and prompt them to seek help. However, the most commonly reported reason why
methamphetamine users enter treatment is trouble with the law. These legal problems
include aggressive or bizarre behaviors which prompt others to call police. Other reasons
for entry include mental or emotional problems and problems at work or at school.
How does the cost of treating
meth users compare to incarceration?
How to help a Tweaker / Tweeker
Intervention and Understanding Addiction
Recovery and Treatment of Crystal Meth / Methamphetamine
A. Treatment is a highly cost-effective alternative;
it is about one-tenth of the cost to treat a person rather than putting him or her in
jail. Meth Math: Cost per Addict
What other problems does
methamphetamine pose to society?
A. Automobile accidents; explosions and fires
triggered by the illegal manufacture of methamphetamine; environmental contamination;
increased criminal activity, including domestic violence; emergency room and other medical
costs; spread of infectious disease, including HIV, AIDS and hepatitis; and lost worker
productivity. Economic costs also fall on governments, which must allocate additional
resources for social services and law enforcement. See also, Cost of Meth to an Addict or Society, Methamphetamine: What are the real costs to society?
Q: How is the production of meth
more dangerous than other drugs?
A. Meth trafficking and production are different than
other drugs because they are dangerous from start to finish. The reckless practices of the
untrained people who manufacture it in clandestine labs result in explosions and fires
that injure or kill not only the people and families involved, but also law enforcement or
fireman who respond. Any number of solvents, precursors and hazardous agents are found in
unmarked containers at these sites. These potent chemicals can enter the central nervous
system and cause neural damage, effect the liver and kidneys, and burn or irritate the
skin, eyes and nose. Environmental damage is another consequence of these reckless
actions, and violence is often a part of the process as well.
Q: What are the most serious
environmental consequences of meth labs?
A. Each pound of meth produced leaves behind five or
six pounds of toxic waste. Meth cooks often pour leftover chemicals and
byproduct sludge down drains in nearby plumbing, storm drains, or directly onto the
ground. Chlorinated solvents and other toxic byproducts used to make meth pose
long-term hazards because they can persist in soil and groundwater for years. Clean-up
costs are exorbitant because solvent contaminated soil usually must be incinerated.
Q: What is the cost of a cleaning
up a clandestine meth lab site?
A. Cleanups of labs are extremely resource-intensive
and beyond the financial capabilities of most jurisdictions. The average cost of a cleanup
is about $5,000 but some cost as much as $150,000. Guidelines for Cleaning up
former Methamphetamine Labs.
Q: What are the federal penalties
for methamphetamine trafficking?
A. The basic, mandatory minimum sentences under
federal law are:
Q: What is the Comprehensive
Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996?
- 10 grams (pure) = 5 years in prison
- 100 grams (pure) = 10 years in prison
A. This federal legislation takes significant steps
toward preventing meth from becoming the next crisis in drug abuse. The bill:
Q: What do I look for if I suspect
a meth lab in my neighborhood?
- Permits the domestic seizure and forfeiture of
methamphetamine precursor chemicals.
- Directs the Attorney General to coordinate international
drug enforcement efforts to interdict such chemicals.
- Increases penalties for the possession of equipment used to
make controlled substances, and for trafficking in certain precursor chemicals.
- Requires an interagency task force to develop and implement
prevention, education and meth treatment strategies.
A. Unusual, strong odors similar to the that of
fingernail polish remover or cat urine; renters who pay cash; large amounts of products
such as cold medicines, antifreeze, drain cleaner, lantern fuel, coffee filters,
batteries, duct tape, clear glass beakers and containers; and residences with windows
blacked out and lots of nighttime traffic. Warning signs
of living near a meth lab
1Methamphetamine: What is it and why is it dangerous?
Cornerstone Behavioral Health < http://www.cornerstonebh.com/meth1.htm >
Parts of this document were provided by the Midwest HIDTA.